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College English, Vol. 78, No. 3, January 2016

Cover Art for College English, Vol. 78, No. 3, January 2016

Table of Contents

Issue Theme: Special Issue: Translingual Work in Composition

  • Guest Editors' Introduction: Translingual Work [FREE ACCESS]

    Min-Zhan Lu and Bruce Horner

    Abstract: This issue both reflects and builds on the efforts prompted by the 2011 College English essay “Language Difference in Writing: Toward a Translingual Approach,” by Bruce Horner, Min-Zhan Lu, Jacqueline Jones Royster, and John Trimbur. Contributions to this symposium contextualize the emergence of a translingual approach, explore the tension and interconnections between a translingual approach and a variety of fields, and explore the viability of a translingual approach in light of existing academic structures.

    Keywords: Translingualism, Language Diversity

  • Translingualism and Close Reading

    John Trimbur

    Abstract: This essay traces a branch of translingualism in US college composition to the era of open admissions, when the emergence of basic writing precipitated a new kind of reading on the part of composition teachers and a new understanding of what error or language differences might mean. It locates one of the antecedents of a translingual approach in the close reading derived from literary studies that developed out of the experience of basic writing, from Mina Shaughnessy’s Errors and Expectations to David Bartholomae’s “The Study of Error” to the present-day work of Min-Zhan Lu and Bruce Horner. 

    Keywords: Close Reading, Translingualism, basic writing, Language Diversity

  • Cultivating a Rhetorical Sensibility in the Translingual Writing Classroom [FREE ACCESS]

    Juan C. Guerra

    Abstract: This essay argues that students must call on their rhetorical sensibilities each time they sit down to write instead of automatically assuming that engaging in code-meshing is the appropriate response to every writing situation. It also encourages pedagogical efforts among teachers that invite students to locate translingualism in its larger contextual relationship with monolingualism and multlingualism, two other approaches to language difference that inform the teaching of writing. In the end, the essay suggests, students must take into consideration how each of these approaches to language difference influences the various decisions they are required to make in the writing classroom.

    Keywords: Pedagogy, Rhetoric, Translingualism, writing processes, code meshing

  • Translingual and Decolonial Approaches to Meaning Making

    Ellen Cushman

    Abstract: Emancipatory projects that have sought to change paradigms of knowledge making in English studies have fallen short of addressing the imperialist underpinnings of modernist thought. This essay defines three key aspects of translingual approaches to composition and rhetoric (i.e., languaging, translating, and dwelling in borders) that can potentially involve scholars and students in meaning making that attempts to level linguistic and knowledge hierarchies that always index imperialist legacies of thought and deed. 

    Keywords: Translingualism, Language Diversity, language acquisition

  • Beyond the Genre Fixation: A Translingual Perspective on Genre

    Anis Bawarshi

    Abstract: This essay examines what a translingual orientation offers to the study and teaching of genre, in particular what we gain when we think of genre difference not as a deviation from a patterned norm but rather as the norm of all genre performance. A translingual perspective draws our attention to genre uptake as a site of transaction where memory, language, and other semiotic resources, genre knowledge, and meanings are translated and negotiated across genres, modalities, and contexts. Focusing on genre uptake performances shifts attention from genre conventions to the interplays between genres where agency is in constant play.

    Keywords: Rhetoric, Translingualism, genre, rhetorical genre studies

  • Transmodality in/and Processes of Making: Changing Dispositions and Practice

    Jody Shipka

    Abstract: This essay argues for approaches to composing that underscore the translingual and multimodal (or transmodal) character of texts and communicative practices. It maintains that learning about and working with different language varieties, cultural conventions, modes, and communicative technologies (digital as well as analog) helps to highlight processes of making, engaging, remixing, and transforming which, in turn, provide markedly different, and greatly enriched, points of entry for experiencing and appreciating the dynamic, highly distributed, translingual, multimodal, and embodied aspects of all communicative practice.

    Keywords: 21st Century Literacies, Translingualism, language acquisition

  • Transfer and Translingualism [FREE ACCESS]

    Rebecca Lorimer Leonard and Rebecca Nowacek

    Abstract: This essay identifies the definitional confluences between transfer and translingualism and then reflects on the ways that each term might benefit from considering the other’s research questions, theoretical frames, and methodologies. While translingualism challenges assumptions about how to recognize and evaluate transfer, the transfer literature demonstrates the value of fine-grained, long-term, naturalistic studies of writing, a value productively taken up in research on a translingual approach. Ultimately, the essay suggests that both transfer and translingualism might best be understood not as prescribed pedagogies or policies but as terms with explanatory value: small theories that help open up changing practices in our writing lives.

    Keywords: Writing Instruction, Translingualism, Language Diversity, transfer

  • Translingual Writing and Teacher Development in Composition

    Suresh Canagarajah

    Abstract: Teacher preparation for translingual writing differs from dominant forms of professional development wherein teachers are armed with predefined norms, materials, and knowledge for classroom purposes. Describing the principles that guide a teacher training course, this essay argues that teacher preparation for translingual writing should focus on encouraging teachers to construct their pedagogies with sensitivity to student, writing, and course diversity, thus continuing to develop their pedagogical knowledge and practice for changing contexts of writing. The essay outlines the principles (practice-based, dialogical, and ecological) that shape the course, describes its main features, and assesses its outcomes.

    Keywords: Professional Development, Composition, Translingualism, Language Diversity

  • Appraising Translingualism

    Dylan B. Dryer

    Abstract: Decades of research on rater training and scoring practices demonstrates that raters’ preferences for writing quality are malleable; for instance, it is customary to "calibrate" raters' scoring decisions through documents like scoring protocols and rubrics. This essay argues that while rubrics from contemporary large-scale writing assessments (and the local assessments they inspire) maintain retrograde assumptions about language variation, relatively small adjustments to these rubrics could help raters and candidates establish what Joseph Williams once called "the ordinary kind of contract" that readers and writers routinely observe anywhere outside of testing contexts.

    Keywords: Translingualism, student assessment, Language Diversity

  • The Rhetoric of Translingualism

    Keith Gilyard

    Abstract: Keith Gilyard’s contribution offers a bracing response to the symposium and the larger body of work identified with “translingual.” Identifying the emergence of translingual perspectives with a long tradition in composition (and beyond) combating monolingualist ideology, he cautions against temptations to turn translingual theory’s insistence on difference as the norm of language practice into a flattening of all difference through abstraction that elides the negotiation of differences in power from communicative practice, a removal that would lead to overlooking which differences in language have what effects on whom. Gilyard’s response and this symposium as a whole show how “translingualism” can, might, and needs to be always put to work.

    Keywords: Rhetoric, Translingualism, Language Diversity

  • Review: Where in the World Is the Writing Program? Administering Writing in Global Contexts [FREE ACCESS]

    Shirley Wilson Logan

    Abstract: In this review, the author discusses two books that attend to the variety of ways in which the geography of a writing program affects how writing is managed and taught.

    Keywords: Composition, Writing Instruction, Translingualism

  • Announcements and Calls for Papers [FREE ACCESS]

* Journal articles are provided in PDF format and can be opened using the free Adobe® Reader® program or a comparable viewer. Click here to download and install the most recent version of Adobe Reader.

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