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CCCC Position Statement

Principles and Practices in Electronic Portfolios

Conference on College Composition and Communication, November 2007, Revised March 2015

[Submitted by the CCCC Taskforce on Best Practices in Electronic Portfolios and adopted by the CCCC Executive Committee on November 19, 2007. Revised in March 2015]

Introductory Premises

Composition professionals in post-secondary institutions—composition faculty, writing program administrators, and technology staff—share concern and responsibility for helping students learn to write at a college level, using the most effective communication technologies. Disciplinary practice and research suggest that portfolio assessment has become an important part of the learning-to-write process.

In turn, electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) have become a viable institutional tool to facilitate student learning and its assessment. E-portfolios can be “web-sensible”—a thoughtfully arranged collection of multimedia-rich, interlinked, hypertextual documents that students compose, own, maintain, and archive on the Internet or in other formats. Web applications designed to support e-portfolio composition can offer additional opportunities for providing structure, guidance, and feedback to students, and can provide students with opportunities to connect selectively with multiple audiences.

E-portfolios communicate various kinds of information for the purposes of assessment. For example, e-portfolios can:

  • Identify connections among academic and extra-curricular learning for admission to higher education and vocational opportunities
  • Demonstrate applications of knowledge and critical literacies for course or programmatic assessment
  • Provide evidence of meeting standards for professional certification
  • Display qualifications for employment
  • Showcase job-related accomplishments beyond schooling, for evaluation or promotion
  • Represent lifelong learning for participation in public service

However, these purposes do not capture important kinds of student learning in composition courses that should carry over to writing tasks in other courses and contexts, such as students understanding different writing processes or learning styles or students setting their own goals for future learning.

As e-portfolios assume a greater role in institutional assessment, First-Year Composition (FYC) will most likely serve as the course that introduces them to students. Therefore, FYC faculty may have a particular, vested interest in identifying the principles and practices of e-portfolio development that prioritize student learning. Such principles and best practices, based on the theoretical knowledge that classroom evidence substantiates, enable composition faculty to provide students with experiences that help them expand and specialize their writing skills for a variety of cross-disciplinary programs and professional contexts beyond FYC.

Suggested Principles and Best Practices

E-portfolios develop over time, taking many forms that are unique to the missions of different programs and institutions. No list of principles and practices can describe such assessment in toto. Neither can any list suggest an ideal path of development or endpoint, because e-portfolio projects are dynamic, in-progress projects that necessarily undergo changes that are influenced by institutional exigencies and available resources.

Nonetheless, this document proposes that successful uses of e-portfolios share in common certain principles and best practices. The following suggested principles—accompanied by supportive practices in the teaching of writing—can inform the use of e-portfolios in writing programs. These principles and best practices can also inform cross-disciplinary faculty, program directors, technology staff, and university administrators, as e-portfolios are adapted on a wider institutional scale.

It may be most useful to consider these principles and practices in conjunction with the National Council of Writing Program Administrators’ “Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition,” since that document provides a sound foundation upon which successful writing instruction and assessment rests.

Principle #1: Learning Outcomes

Students are guided by clearly articulated individual, course, programmatic, or institutional outcomes in their collection, selection, reflection upon, and presentation of “artifacts” (various electronic documents) in the e-portfolio.

At the same time, students structure portfolios around their own learning goals.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Familiarize students with programmatic learning outcomes
    • Share the rubric that will be used in e-portfolio assessment
    • Provide students with models of e-portfolios that illustrate different ways of meeting programmatic outcomes and satisfying rubric criteria
    • Help students identify personal learning goals and adapt programmatic outcomes to those goals
    • Design e-portfolios that demonstrate their own learning goals in teaching
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Familiarize faculty with learning outcomes that the profession values nationally
    • Collaborate with faculty to establish local programmatic learning outcomes based on actual classroom activities and assignments
    • Collaborate with faculty in designing rubrics that consistently facilitate a valid and reliable process of measuring programmatic learning outcomes
    • Collaborate with faculty to cull various models of successful e-portfolios
    • Participate in the selection of software that will help faculty and students meet the program or course learning objectives
    • Observe protocols of permission and confidentiality in obtaining model e-portfolios for instructional purposes
    • Design e-portfolios that demonstrate their own learning goals in writing program direction
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Maintain an archive of student and faculty e-portfolios that successfully illustrate programmatic learning outcomes in various ways
    • Make the archive easily accessible for instructional purposes
    • Collaborate with faculty and program directors to determine how technology facilitates programmatic learning outcomes
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Encourage authentic assessment driven by locally-designed programmatic objectives and outcomes
    • Select e-portfolio platforms that best support the teaching and assessment of those locally-designed programmatic objectives and outcomes
    • Provide resources for writing programs to develop and share learning outcomes with other programs
    • Highlight how e-portfolios demonstrate student learning outcomes in annual institutional reports and accreditation cycles
    • Factor faculty and director e-portfolios in reviews for promotion and tenure

Principle #2: Digital Environments

Students develop digital literacies in composing, collaboration, and records-keeping, and consider the rhetorical implications of circulating e-portfolios to both public and private audiences.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Introduce students to the affordances of different digital media
    • Teach students to attend to web design in rhetorically effective and ethical ways, e.g., linking, choosing images, creating webpage formats
    • Discuss the ethical use of digital sources (e.g., fair use, copyright, Creative Commons licenses) and protocols for obtaining permission and documenting digital sources
    • Provide classroom experiences that allow students to practice multimodal composing
    • Encourage students to collaborate when composing and designing multimodal texts
    • Prompt student reflection and discussion on the potentials and limitations of creating e-portfolios with institution-supported e-portfolio platforms or with other outside platforms and tools
    • Facilitate critical discussions on the benefits and disadvantages of students allowing public access to their documents
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Train faculty how to create and teach e-portfolios well in advance of initial attempts to implement programmatic assessment
    • Show faculty how to implement web design for e-portfolios in easy-to-teach steps
    • Give faculty a clear rationale and explanation of how e-portfolios enhance digital learning and assessment, so faculty can explain the same to students
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Develop and test templates for constructing e-portfolios, to assure consistencies in design, layout, and usability
    • Train technology mentors to work individually or in class with students and faculty
    • Provide ongoing, drop-in workshops and studios to support students and faculty
    • Oversee development of online manuals to assist students and faculty with the use of e-portfolio platforms
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Establish budget lines to ensure on-campus technological support and training for students and faculty
    • Show long term commitment to e-portfolios (e.g., purchase equipment, maintain equipment replacement cycles, engage software consultants, provide central electronic sites where students may access their e-portfolios at any time from any location)

Principle #3: Virtual Identities

Students represent themselves through personalized information that conveys a web-savvy and deliberately constructed ethos for various uses of the e-portfolio. Students manage those identities by having control over artifacts and who sees them through privacy and access tools.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Facilitate critical discussions of how writers represent themselves in online resumes, profiles, etc.
    • Help students recognize what information, digital forms, and specific artifacts can best represent them as learners
    • Acquaint students with how they construct professional ethos in their own e-portfolios and how they represent themselves professionally, academically, civically, or culturally
    • Encourage students to represent their multicultural backgrounds effectively
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Acquaint faculty with any institutional policies or protocols relevant to Internet publishing, student confidentiality, and personal information
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Set up access protocols that protect student confidentiality and control over who may read e-portfolios, allowing them selectively to deliver and circulate their work in different forms to a variety of audiences
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Provide guidelines for maintaining student confidentiality and use of e-portfolios as an assessment tool

Principle #4: Authentic Audiences

Students engage in audience analysis of who they intend to read their e-portfolios, not only to accommodate faculty, but also employers, issuers of credentials, family, friends, and other readers. Students coordinate access to their e-portfolios with faculty, programs, the institution, and other readers.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Facilitate critical discussions of different readers’ expectations about grammatical usage and digital styles (e.g., font, layout, colors, text-image balance)
    • Teach conventions and principles of user-friendly design and functionality
    • Identify the readers who will assess students’ programmatic e-portfolios, and familiarize students with those readers’ expectations
    • Help students identify and cultivate appropriate outside readers to respond to their e-portfolios (e.g., former teachers or employers)
    • Teach rhetorical knowledge and dexterity by asking students to analyze how e-portfolios might be written and designed for different readers (e.g., program directors in their major, prospective employers, evaluators of transferable course credits)
    • Encourage students to understand that e-portfolios are dynamic, not static, collections that they will continue to change as they encounter new readers in various contexts
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Invite students to present their e-portfolios in faculty training sessions
    • Develop protocols to inform students and faculty about expectations for e-portfolio assessment (e.g., required minimal content, elements of format, reflective artifacts)
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Design websites that showcase programmatic uses of e-portfolios for purposes of recruiting students, informing administrators, attracting employers, and educating legislators or the public (while maintaining the technology that allows students to continue to choose and change whatever artifacts are put on public display)
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Encourage involvement of students in campus-wide workshops to acquaint cross-curricular faculty and program directors in all disciplines with various uses of e-portfolio assessment
    • Include student representation in university assessment committees
    • Provide recognition and awards for excellence in student e-portfolios

Principle #5: Reflection and E-portfolio Pedagogy

Students create “reflective artifacts” in which they identify and evaluate the different kinds of learning that their e-portfolios represent. In particular, students may explain how various forms of instructive feedback (from faculty, Writing Centers, peers, and other readers) have influenced the composition and revision of their various e-portfolio artifacts, making teaching methods and learning contexts more transparent to their readers.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Teach students different formats and forms that facilitate reflection on their learning at various stages of drafting and web-design (e.g., reflective cover letters that introduce and link readers to various artifacts; concept maps)
    • Teach students that ongoing, rigorous reflection is a crucial part of the process of creating e-portfolios that are dynamic, not static collections
    • Provide opportunities for students to give each other feedback on e-portfolio artifacts, including reflective artifacts
    • Give students clear, constructive feedback that encourages revision and offers tips for improvement in design and communication modalities
    • Encourage students to consult with Writing Center tutors or other institutional support services
    • Collaborate regularly with other faculty, technology staff, and program directors to share the most effective ways to provide feedback and teach reflection
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Acquaint faculty with exemplary e-portfolio formats and forms that show how students can effectively link reflective artifacts with their selected written work (e.g., cover letters, concept maps)
    • Collaborate with teachers to craft effective writing prompts that lead to intellectually rigorous reflective thinking
    • Give faculty feedback on their own e-portfolios and encourage them to incorporate it in their annual self-evaluations
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Coordinate closely with writing program directors and faculty to develop technologies that can help track or display the “feedback loop” between writers and responders/evaluators
    • Keep faculty aware of new technologies that have potential for creating reflective artifacts
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Understand reflection as a critical thinking skill that reinforces student learning outcomes and yields valuable insights about programmatic effectiveness
    • Oversee campus events that introduce or advance knowledge about reflection and e-portfolio pedagogy (e.g., invite national speakers, sponsor regional conferences)

Principle #6: Integration and Curriculum Connections

Students link artifacts in a flexible structure that (1) synthesizes diverse evidence and ideas, (2) invites linear or non-linear ways to read and evaluate e-portfolios, and (3) makes connections to portfolio-related evidence and relationships distributed across the Internet. Students may therefore use linking to represent how e-portfolio artifacts inter-relate with other courses in the larger context of whole-curriculum learning.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Encourage students to show learning outcomes by linking artifacts to earlier drafts, or even to artifacts from earlier, relevant courses
    • Encourage students to show transferability of learning outcomes by linking artifacts developed in writing courses to cross-curricular courses
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Facilitate discussions with faculty on how e-portfolios can encourage articulation among related courses (e.g., first and second-semester FYC, or FYC and advanced composition courses)
    • Collaborate with other program directors to stimulate cross-curricular articulation among courses and address shared assessment goals
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Develop e-portfolio systems that feature compatibility with other programmatic or institutional e-portfolio systems
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Encourage faculty, program directors, departments, and colleges to identify and agree upon where in the overall scheme of institutional accountability e-portfolios can play a well-defined, cross-curricular role in student learning and assessment
    • Embrace flexibility in software/technology to accommodate various institutional and programmatic  assessment needs
    • Endorse and provide resources for writing across the curriculum

Principle #7: Stakeholders’ Responsibilities

Students receive the necessary support from faculty, program directors, and university administrators who not only use e-portfolios for assessment purposes and program improvement, but also keep informed about what resources are essential for implementing, maintaining, and accessing e-portfolios.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Familiarize themselves with relevant theory and e-portfolio research
    • Participate in ongoing programmatic assessment of student e-portfolios
    • Use findings of e-portfolio assessment to improve approaches to teaching
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Acquaint faculty with the most relevant sources available in portfolio learning, research, and assessment
    • Set up and train a small cohort of faculty to participate in a pilot program when first implementing e-portfolios
    • Expand e-portfolio assessment gradually
    • Conduct faculty scoring of e-portfolios, involving mixes of teachers who are experienced and inexperienced with programmatic assessment
      Invite teachers to suggest ways to improve training in e-portfolios, and use findings of e-portfolio assessment to improve the program
    • Report assessment data promptly and provide university administrators with examples of actual student- and teacher-designed e-portfolios that help interpret what the data means
    • Collaborate with directors who are using e-portfolios at their own and other institutions
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Contribute to the development of open-source software and standards that support e-portfolio implementation and maintenance
    • Adapt portfolio rubrics to electronic formats that collect and process data efficiently
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Provide start-up funds for writing directors, technology staff, and interested teachers to engage in professional development related to e-portfolios (e.g., conferences, national workshops)
    • Use e-portfolio assessment findings to help inform further decisions about allocating resources

Principle # 8: Lifelong Learning

Students are able to adapt their e-portfolios to various purposes/ uses beyond their academic careers, enabling their various readers, in turn, to track their learning longitudinally.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Introduce students to a range of uses for which e-portfolios are used beyond programmatic or institutional goals
    • Provide students with models of e-portfolios that have been adapted for different purposes, to show development of learning over time
    • Demonstrate how their own e-portfolios are examples of lifelong learning
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Coordinate with other program directors and university administrators to develop institutional e-portfolio systems that accommodate longitudinal tracking
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Collaborate with other institutions and organizations, to develop e-portfolio systems that are compatible and interoperable, accommodating “open standards” so that students can easily transfer their e-portfolios to other institutions or sites
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Collaborate with other institutions, state boards of education, and organizations that could provide space and support for e-portfolios that demonstrate lifelong learning

Current Examples

Current examples of well-conceived e-portfolio projects include:

  1. Alverno Diagnostic Digital Portfolio— http://ddp.alverno.edu/
  2. E-Folio Minnesota— http://efoliominnesota.com/
  3. Elon University Student Portfolios—http://www.elon.edu/e-web/academics/elon_college/english/pwr/portfolios.xhtml
  4. Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis, Institutional Portfolio— http://www.iport.iupui.edu/about/
  5. John Hopkins Digital Portfolio—http://olms1.cte.jhu.edu/2845
  6. Kapi’olani Community College—http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kirkpatr/kite/kiteloa/
  7. La Guardia Community College— http://eportfolio.lagcc.cuny.edu/
  8. Louisiana State University Communication Across the Curriculum Digital Portfolio Examples— http://sites01.lsu.edu/wp/cxc/digital-portfolio-examples/
  9. Michigan State University, Professional Writing Alumni Portfolios—http://wrac.msu.edu/professional-writing/portfolio/
  10. New York City College of Technology ePortfolio— http://websupport1.citytech.cuny.edu/eportfolio.html
  11. Portland State University University Studies Portfolios—http://www.pdx.edu/unst/our-portfolios
  12. Portfolios at Penn State—http://portfolio.psu.edu/
  13. St. Olaf College Web Portfolios— http://wp.stolaf.edu/cis/individual-majors-web-portfolios/
  14. University of British Columbia ePortfolios— http://elearning.ubc.ca/toolkit/eportfolios/
  15. University of Denver DU Portfolio— https://portfolio.du.edu/
  16. University of Washington Bothell ePortfolios http://www.uwb.edu/learningtech/elearning/eportfolios
  17. Virginia Tech ePortfolio— https://atel.tlos.vt.edu/eportfolios

Interested teachers, writing program administrators, technology professionals, and university administrators interested in learning more about e-portfolio programs at particular universities should also consult the ePortfolio case studies (Section II, Chapters 23–51) in Handbook of Research on ePortfolios, edited by Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman (Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006, 248–575).

This shorter list presents examples of professional e-portfolios created by scholars and teachers in composition studies. All e-portfolios are shared with permission from the authors.??

1. Dr. Daniel Anderson, Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, “LitCasting: Sharing Engagement with Literature”—http://www.teachmix.com/litcast/node/155

2. Dr. Steven J. Corbett, Visiting Assistant Professor, George Mason University, “Poetics, Rhetorics, and Relationships”—http://writing.colostate.edu/community/portfolios/portfolio.cfm?portfolioid=2870

3. Dr. Michael Day, Professor, Northern Illinois University, “Assignment for Reflective Teaching Portfolio.” http://www.engl.niu.edu/mday/600eportf.html
These sample professional portfolios were generated by teaching assistants at Northern Illinois University in response to Dr. Michael Day’s reflective teaching e-portfolio assignment:

Bibliography

This bibliography of current sources on e-portfolios includes important research in composition studies and other disciplines:

Abrami, Philip, and Helen Barrett. “Directions for Research and Development on Electronic Portfolios.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 31.3 (2005). Web 5 Mar. 2015.

Acker, Stephen, and Kay Halasek. “Preparing High School Students for College-Level Writing: Using ePortfolio to Support a Successful Transition.” Journal of General Education 57.1 (2008): 1–14. Print.

Acosta, Teresa, and Youmei Liu. “ePortfolios: Beyond Assessment.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 15–23. Print.

Al Kahtani, Saad. “Electronic Portfolios in ESL Writing: An Alternative Approach.” Computer Assisted Language Learning 12.3 (1999): 261–68. Print.

Alverno College. “The Diagnostic Digital Portfolio.” Nov. 2003. Web. 1 Mar. 2015. http://www.ddp.alverno.edu/.

Anderson, Dan, Jacklyn Ngo, Sydney Stegall, and Kyle Stevens. “This is What We Did in Our Class.” CCC Online 1.1 (2012). Web. 3 Mar 2015. http://bit.ly/castinglearning.

Ash, Linda. Electronic Student Portfolios. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight Professional Development, 2000. Print.

Avraamidou, Lucy, and Carla Zembal-Saul. “Exploring the Influence of Web-based Portfolio Development on Learning to Teach Elementary Science.” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 11.3 (2003): 415–42. Print.

Bacabac, Florence Elizabeth. “Creating Professional ePortfolios in Technical Writing.” Journal of Business and Technical Communication 27.1 (2013): 91–110. Print.

Barkley, Elizabeth. “From Bach to Tupac: Using an Electronic Course Portfolio to Analyze a Curricular Transformation.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 117–23. Print.

Barrett, Helen C. "Electronic Portfolios = Multimedia Development = Portfolio Development: The Electronic Development Process." Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.110–116. Print.

_____. “Researching Electronic Portfolios and Learner Engagement: The REFLECT Initiative.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 50.6 (2007): 436–49. Print.

Batson, Trent. “The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What’s it All About?” Campus Technology (Dec. 2002). Web. 1 Mar. 2015.

Bauer, William, and Robert Dunn. “Digital Reflection: The Electronic Portfolio in Music Teacher Education.” Journal of Music Teacher Education 13.1 (2003): 7–20. Print.

Beck, Robert, Nava Livne, and Sharon Bear. “Teachers’ Self-Assessment of the Effects of Formative and Summative Electronic Portfolios on Professional Development.” European Journal of Teacher Education 28.3 (2005): 221–44. Print.

Blair, Kristine L. “Digital Ideologies and Electronic Portfolios: Toward a Rhetoric of Hybridity.” Digital Tools in Composition Studies. Ed. Ollie O. Oviedo, Joyce R. Walker, and Byron Hawk. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2010. 253–70. Print.

_____. “Technological Labor and Tenure Decisions: Making a Virtual Case via Electronic Portfolios.” Labor, Writing Technologies, and the Shaping of Composition in the Academy. Ed. Pamela Takayoshi and Patricia Sullivan. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2007. 59–74. Print.

Blom, Diana, Jennifer Rowley, Dawn Bennett, Matthew Hitchcock, and Peter Dunbar-Hall. “Knowledge Sharing: Exploring Institutional Policy and Educator Practice through ePortfolios in Music and Writing.” Electronic Journal of e-Learning 12.2 (2014): 138–48. Print.

Borden, Victor. “The Role of Institutional Research and Data in Institutional Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 192–202. Print.

Brammer, Charlotte. “Eportfolios and Cognitive Storytelling: Making the Journey Personal.” Business Communication Quarterly 74.3 (2011): 352–55. Print.

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Cambridge, Barbara L., Susan Kahn, Daniel P. Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey, eds. Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. Print.

Cambridge, Darren. “Integral ePortfolio Interoperability with the IMS ePortfolio Specification.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 234–47. Print.

_____, ed. E-Portfolios and Global Diffusion: Solutions for Collaborative Education. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2012. Print.

Cambridge, Darren, Barbara Cambridge, and Kathleen Yancey. Electronic Portfolios 2.0: Emergent Research on Implementation and Impact. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, 2009. Print.

Campbell, Jo. “Electronic Portfolios: A Five-Year History.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 185–94. Print.

Carliner, Saul. “Commentary: Assessing the Current Status of Electronic Portfolios.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 31.3 (2005). Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

Carmean, Colleen, and Alice Christie. “ePortfolios: Constructing Meaning Across Time, Space, and Curriculum.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 33–43. Print.

Carney, Joanne. “Setting an Agenda for Electronic Portfolio Research: A Framework for Evaluating Portfolio Literature.” Presentation at the American Educational Research Association Conference, San Diego, April 14, 2004. Web. 4 Mar. 2015. http://www.pgce.soton.ac.uk/IT/Research/Eportfolios/AERAresearchlit.pdf.

Chalfen, Richard. “Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors.” Journal of Educational Media 29.1 (2004): 37–48. Print.

Challis, Diana. “Towards the Mature ePortfolio: Some Implications for Higher Education.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 31.3 (2005). Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

Chang, Chi-Cheng. “A Study on the Evaluation and Effectiveness Analysis of Web-based Learning Portfolio.” British Journal of Educational Technology 32.4 (2001): 435–58. Print.

Chappell, David, and John Schermerhorn Jr. "Using Electronic Student Portfolios in Management Education: A Stakeholder Perspective." Journal of Management Education 23.6 (1999): 651–62. Print.

Chen, Helen L., and Thomas Black. “Using E-Portfolios to Support an Undergraduate Learning Career: An Experiment with Academic Advising.” EDUCAUSE Quarterly Magazine 15 Dec. 2010. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Chen, Helen, David Cannon, Jonathan Gabrio, Larry Leifer, George Toye, and Tori Bailey. “Using Wikis and Weblogs to Support Reflective Learning in an Introductory Engineering Design Course.” Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition. American Society for Engineering Education, 2005. Print.

Clark, J. Elizabeth. “The Digital Imperative: Making the Case for a 21st Century Pedagogy.” Computers and Composition 27.1 (2010): 27–35. Print.

Click, Ben A., and Sarah C. Magruder. “Implementing Electronic Portfolios for Performance Assessment: A Pilot Program Involving a College Writing Center.” Assessment Update 16.4 (2004): 13–5. Print.

Cohn, Ellen, and Bernard Hibbits. “Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.” EDUCAUSE Quarterly 27.4 (2004): 7–10. Print.

Colby, Richard. “Digital Portfolio Sensibility: An Interview with Kathleen Blake Yancey.” Computers and Composition Online. Spring 2005. Web. 4 Mar. 2015. http://www2.bgsu.edu/departments/english/cconline/yancey/index.htm

Condon, William, Fiona Glade, Richard Haswell, Lisa Johnson-Shull, Diane Kelly-Riley, Galen Leonhardy, Jennie Nelson, Susan McLeod, and Susan Wyche. “Whither? Some Questions, Some Answers.” Beyond Outcomes: Assessment and Instruction Within a University Writing Program. Ed. Richard Haswell. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2001. 191–205. Print.

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Crandall, Bryan Ripley. “Senior Boards: Multimedia Presentations from Yearlong Research and Community-Based Culminating Projects.” Teaching the New Writing: Technology, Change, and Assessment in the 21st Century. Ed. Anne Herrington, Kevin Hodgson, Charles Moran, and Elyse Eidman-Aadahl. New York: Teachers College Press, 2009. 107–23. Print.

Dagley, Valerie, and Bob Berrington. “Learning from an Evaluation of an Electronic Portfolio to Support General Practitioners’ Personal Development Planning, Appraisal, and Revalidation.” Education for Primary Care 16.5 (Sept. 2005): 567–74. Print.

Desmet, Christy, Deborah Church Miller, June Griffin, Ron Balthazor, and Robert E. Cummings. “Reflection, Revision, and Assessment in First-Year Composition ePortfolios.” Journal of General Education 57.1 (2008): 15–30. Print.

DiMarco, John. Portfolio Design and Applications. Hershey, PA: Idea Group, 2006. Print.

Dorn, Dean. “Electronic Department Portfolios: A New Tool for Department Learning and Improvement.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 203–8. Print.

Dornan, Tim, Carmen Carroll, and John Parboosingh. “An Electronic Learning Portfolio for Reflective Continuing Professional Development.” Medical Education 36.8 (2002): 767–69. Print.

Ehrmann, Stephen C. “Electronic Portfolio Initiatives: A Flashlight Guide to Planning and Formative Evaluation.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 180–93. Print.

Ellertson, Anthony. “Information Appliances and Electronic Portfolios: Rearticulating the Institutional Author.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 10.1 (2005). Web. 4 Mar. 2015.

Feng, Franc. “Toward a Framework/Data Model: From ePortfolio Thinking to Folio Culture.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 217–33. Print.

Fischer, Kathleen M. “Down the Yellow-Chip Road: Hypertext Portfolios in Oz.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 169–83. Print.

Flanigan, Eleanor J., and Susan Amirian. “ePortfolios: Pathway from Classroom to Career.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 102–11. Print.

Forbes, Cheryl. “Cowriting, Overwriting, and Overriding in Portfolio Land Online.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 195–205. Print.

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Ketcheson, Kathi. “Portland State University’s Electronic Institutional Portfolio: Strategy, Planning, and Assessment.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.178–91. Print.

_____. “Hands and Minds: Collaboration among Faculty and Institutional Researchers in Portland State University's Portfolio Project.” Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum 13.3 (2002): 22–9. Print.

Kim, Paul. “Perspectives on a Visual Map-Based Electronic Portfolio System.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 44–53. Print.

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_____. The Web Portfolio Guide: Creating Electronic Portfolios for the Web. NY: Longman, 2003. Print.

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_____. Rev. of The Web Portfolio Guide: Creating Electronic Portfolios for the Web, by Miles A. Kimball. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 7.3 (2002). Web. 4 Mar. 2015.

_____. Teaching and Learning First-Year Composition with Digital Portfolios. Diss. Ball State University, 2002. Web. 4 Mar. 2015. http://richrice.com/dissertation.pdf

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Sherman, Greg. “Instructional Roles of Electronic Portfolios.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 1–14. Print.

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Springfield, Emily. “A Major Redesign of the Kalamazoo Portfolio.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 53–59. Print.

_____. “Comparing Electronic and Paper Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 76–82. Print.

Stevenson, Heidi J. “Using ePortfolios to Foster Peer Assessment, Critical Thinking, and Collaboration.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 112–24. Print.

Sunal, Cynthia, Theresa McCormick, and Dennis Sunal. “Elementary Teacher Candidates’ Construction of Criteria for Selecting Social Studies Lesson Plans for Electronic Portfolios.” Journal of Social Studies Research 29.1 (2005): 7–17. Print.

Syverson, M.A. “Beyond Portfolios: The Learning Record Online.” 7 Jan. 2003. Web. 4 Mar. 2015. http://www.learningrecord.org/

Takayoshi, Pamela. “The Shape of Electronic Writing: Evaluating and Assessing Computer-Assisted Writing Processes and Products.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 245–57. Print.

Tetreault, Mary Kathryn, and Kathi A. Ketcheson. “Creating a Shared Understanding of Institutional Knowledge through an Electronic Institutional Portfolio.” Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum 13.3 (2002): 40–49. Print.

Tompkins, Daniel. “Ambassadors with Portfolios: Electronic Portfolios and the Improvement of Teaching.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 91–105. Print.

_____. “Ambassadors with Portfolios: Recommendations.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 130–31. Print.

Tosh, David, Tracy Penny Light, Kele Fleming, and Jeff Haywood. “Engagement with Electronic Portfolios: Challenges from the Student Perspective.” Canadian Journal of Learning & Technology 31.3 (2005). Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

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Tosh, David, Ben Werdmuller, Helen L. Chen, Tracy Penny Light, and Jeff Haywood. “The Learning Landscape: A Conceptual Framework for ePortfolios.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. A. Jafari and C.W. Kaufman Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 24–32.

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Wade, Anne, Phillip Abrami, and Jennifer Sclater. “An Electronic Portfolio to Support Learning.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 31.3 (2005). Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

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Williams, Julia M. “Evaluating What Students Know: Using the RosE Portfolio System for Institutional and Program Outcomes Assessment Tutorial.” IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 53.1 (2010): 46–57. Print.

Wills, Katherine V., and Richard Aaron Rice. ePortfolio Performance Support Systems: Constructing, Presenting, and Assessing Portfolios. Anderson, SC: Parlor Press, 2013. Print.

Whithaus, Carl. “A Review of Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 7.1 (Spring 2002). Web. 4 Mar. 2015.

_____. “Green Squiggly Lines: Evaluating Student Writing in Computer Mediated Environments.” Academic.Writing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Writing Across the Curriculum (2002). Web. 4 Mar. 2015. http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/articles/whithaus2002/.

Whithaus, Carl, and Mary Beth Lakin. “Working (on) Electronic Portfolios: Connections between Work and Study.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 9.2 (2005). Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

Wilferth, Joseph. “Private Literacies, Popular Culture, and Going Public: Teachers and Students as Authors of the Electronic Portfolio.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 7.2 (Summer 2002). Web. 4 Mar. 2015.

Wilson, Elizabeth, Vivian Wright, and Joyce Stallworth. “Secondary Preservice Teachers’ Development of Electronic Portfolios: An Examination of Perceptions.” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 11.4 (2003): 515–27. Print.

Worley, Rebecca B. “Eportfolios Examined: Tools for Exhibit and Evaluation.” Business Communication Quarterly 74.3 (2011): 330–32. Print.

Yancey, Kathleen Blake. “Digitalized Student Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 15–30. Print.

_____. “Electronic Portfolios and Writing Assessment: A Work in Progress.” Assessment in Writing (Assessment in the Disciplines, Vol. 4). Ed. Marie C. Paretti and Katrina M. Powell. Tallahassee, TN: Association of Institutional Researchers, 2009. 182–206. Print.

_____. “General Patterns and the Future.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 83–87. Print.

_____. “Portfolio, Electronic, and the Links Between.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 129–33. Print.

_____. “Postmodernism, Palimpsest, and Portfolios: Theoretical Issues in the Representation of Student Work.” College Composition and Communication. 55.4 (2004): 738–61. Print.

_____. “The Rhetorical Situation of Writing Assessment: Exigence, Location, and the Making of Knowledge.” Writing Assessment in the 21st Century: Essays in Honor of Edward M. White. Ed. Norbert Elliot and Les Perelman. New York: Hampton Press, 2012. 475–92. Print.

Young, Jeffrey. “Creating Online Portfolios Can Help Students See ‘Big Picture,’ Colleges Say.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 21 Feb. 2002. Web. 4 Mar. 2015.

Zalatan, Katrina. “Electronic Portfolios in a Management Major Curriculum.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Tompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 44–52. Print.

Zembal-Saul, Carle, Leigh Haefner, Lucy Avraamidou, Mary Severs, and Tom Dana. “Web-Based Portfolios: A Vehicle for Examining Prospective Elementary Teachers’ Developing Understandings of Teaching Science.” Journal of Science Teacher Education 13.4 (2002): 283–302. Print.

Zubizarreta, John. The Learning Portfolio: Reflective Practice for Improving Student Learning. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009. Print.

Some Relevant Sources on Reflection

Blackburn, Jessica L., and Milton D. Hakel. “Enhancing Self-Regulation and Goal Orientation with ePortfolios.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 83–89. Print.

Brookfield, Stephen. Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. Print.

Doig, Bob, Barbara Illsley, Joseph McLuckie, and Richard Parsons. “Using ePortfolios to Enhance Reflective Learning and Development.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 158–67. Print.

Granville, Stella, and Laura Dison. “Making Connections Through Reflection: Writing and Feedback in an Academic Literacy Programme.” Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 27.1 (2009): 53–63. Print.

Journet, Debra, Tabetha Adkins, Chris Alexander, Patrick Corbett, Ryan Trauman. “Digital Mirrors: Multimodal Reflection in the Composition Classroom.” Computers and Composition Online (Spring 2008). Web. 5 Mar. 2015. http://www2.bgsu.edu/departments/english/cconline/ed_welcome/spring2008.html

Jung, Julie. “Reflective Writing’s Synecdochic Imperative: Process Descriptions Redescribed.” College English 73.6 (2011): 628–47. Print.

Mills, Roxanne. “‘It’s Just a Nuisance’: Improving College Student Reflective Journal Writing.” College Student Journal 42.2 (2008): 684–90. Print.

Riedinger, Bonnie. “Mining for Meaning: Teaching Students How to Reflect.” Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Eds. Ali Jafari and Catherine Kaufman. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2006. 90–101. Print.

Robertson, Liane, Kara Taczak, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. “Notes toward a Theory of Prior Knowledge and Its Role in College Composers’ Transfer of Knowledge and Practice.” Composition Forum 26 (Fall 2012). Web. 4 Mar. 2015.

Rodgers, Carol. “Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking.” Teachers College Record 104.4 (2002): 842–66. Print.

Schon, Donald. Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987. Print.

_____. “Causality and Causal Inference in the Study of Organizations.” Rethinking Knowledge: Reflections Across the Disciplines. Ed. Robert Goodman and Walter Fisher. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. 69–103. Print.

Scott, Tony. “Creating the Subject of Portfolios: Reflective Writing and the Conveyance of Institutional Prerogatives.” Written Communication 22.1 (2005): 3–35. Print.

Yancey, Kathleen. Reflection in the Writing Classroom. Logan: Utah State University Press, 1998. Print.

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