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CCCC Position Statement

Principles and Practices in Electronic Portfolios

Conference on College Composition and Communication, November 2007

[Submitted by the CCCC Taskforce on Best Practices in Electronic Portfolios and adopted by the CCCC Executive Committee on November 19, 2007.]

Introductory Premises

Composition professionals in post-secondary institutions—composition faculty, writing program administrators, and technology staff—share concern and responsibility for helping students learn to write at a college level, using the most effective communication technologies. Disciplinary practice and research suggest that portfolio assessment has become an important part of the learning-to-write process.

In turn, electronic portfolios (e-portfolios) have become a viable institutional tool to facilitate student learning and its assessment. E-portfolios can be “web-sensible”—a thoughtfully arranged collection of multimedia-rich, interlinked, hypertextual documents that students compose, own, maintain, and archive on the Internet or in other formats (e.g., CD-ROMs, DVDs). Web applications designed to support e-portfolio composition can offer additional opportunities for providing structure, guidance, and feedback to students, and can provide students with opportunities to connect selectively with multiple audiences.

E-portfolios communicate various kinds of information for the purposes of assessment. For example, e-portfolios can:

  • Identify connections among academic and extra-curricular learning for admission to higher education and vocational opportunities
  • Demonstrate applications of knowledge and critical literacies for course or programmatic assessment
  • Provide evidence of meeting standards for professional certification
  • Display qualifications for employment
  • Showcase job-related accomplishments beyond schooling, for evaluation or promotion
  • Represent lifelong learning for participation in public service

However, these purposes do not capture important kinds of student learning in composition courses that should carry over to writing tasks in other courses and contexts, e.g., students understanding their own writing process or learning style, or students setting their own goals for future learning.

As e-portfolios assume a greater role in institutional assessment, First-Year Composition (FYC) will most likely serve as the course that introduces them to students. Therefore, FYC faculty may have a particular, invested interest in identifying the principles and practices of e-portfolio development that prioritize student learning. Such principles and best practices, based on the theoretical knowledge that classroom evidence substantiates, enable composition faculty to provide students with experiences that help them expand and specialize their writing skills for a variety of cross-disciplinary programs and professional contexts beyond FYC.

Suggested Principles and Best Practices

E-portfolios develop slowly, taking many forms that are unique to the missions of different programs and institutions. No list of principles and practices can describe such assessment in toto. Neither can any list suggest an ideal path of development or endpoint, because e-portfolio projects are dynamic, in-progress projects that necessarily undergo changes that are influenced by institutional exigencies and available resources.

Nonetheless, this document proposes that successful uses of e-portfolios share in common certain principles and best practices. The following suggested principles—accompanied by supportive practices in the teaching of writing—can inform the use of e-portfolios in writing programs. These principles and best practices can also inform cross-disciplinary faculty, program directors, and university administrators, as e-portfolios are adapted on a wider institutional scale.

It may be most useful to consider these principles and practices in conjunction with the National Council of Writing Program Administrators’ “Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition,” since that document provides a sound foundation upon which successful writing instruction and assessment rests.

Principle #1: Learning Outcomes

Students are guided by clearly articulated individual, course, programmatic, or institutional outcomes in their collection, selection, reflection upon, and presentation of “artifacts” (various electronic documents) in the e-portfolio. At the same time, students structure portfolios around their own learning goals.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Familiarize students with programmatic learning outcomes
    • Share the rubric that will be used in e-portfolio assessment
    • Provide students with models of e-portfolios that illustrate different ways of meeting programmatic outcomes and satisfying rubric criteria
    • Help students identify personal learning goals and adapt programmatic outcomes to those goals
    • Design e-portfolios that demonstrate their own learning goals in teaching
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Familiarize faculty with learning outcomes that the profession values nationally
    • Collaborate with faculty to establish local programmatic learning outcomes based on actual classroom activities and assignments
    • Collaborate with faculty in designing rubrics that consistently facilitate a valid and reliable process of measuring programmatic learning outcomes
    • Collaborate with faculty to cull various models of successful e-portfolios
    • Observe protocols of permission and confidentiality in obtaining model e-portfolios for instructional purposes
    • Design e-portfolios that demonstrate their own learning goals in writing program direction
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Maintain an archive of student and faculty e-portfolios that successfully illustrate programmatic learning outcomes in various ways
    • Make the archive easily accessible for instructional purposes
    • Collaborate with faculty and program directors to determine how technology facilitates programmatic learning outcomes
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Encourage authentic assessment driven by locally-designed programmatic objectives and outcomes
    • Provide resources for writing programs to develop and share learning outcomes with other programs
    • Highlight how e-portfolios demonstrate student learning outcomes in annual institutional reports and accreditation cycles
    • Factor faculty and director e-portfolios in reviews for promotion and tenure

Principle #2: Digital Environments

Students make optimal use of the technological features of electronic writing, collaboration, and records-keeping, and consider the larger implications of making e-portfolios accessible on the Internet.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Introduce students to concepts and applications of visual rhetoric on the Internet
    • Teach students to use features of web-design in rhetorically effective and ethical ways (linking, choosing images, creating webpage formats)
    • Discuss protocols for obtaining permission and documenting Internet sources
    • Help students experiment with multimedia possibilities for composing documents
    • Encourage students to collaborate in web-designing sessions
    • Facilitate critical discussions on the benefits and disadvantages of students allowing public access to their documents
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Train faculty how to create and teach e-portfolios well in advance of initial attempts to implement programmatic assessment
    • Show faculty how to implement web design for e-portfolios in easy-to-teach steps
    • Give faculty a clear rationale and explanation of how e-portfolios enhance digital learning and assessment, so faculty can explain the same to students
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Develop and test templates for constructing e-portfolios, to assure consistencies in design, simple layout, and user-friendliness
    • Train technology mentors to work individually or in class with students and faculty
    • Provide ongoing, drop-in workshops and studios to support students and faculty
    • Oversee development of online manuals to assist faculty in webpage and e-portfolio design
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Establish budget lines to ensure on-campus technological support and training for students and faculty
    • Show long term commitment to e-portfolios (e.g., purchase equipment, maintain equipment replacement cycles, engage software consultants, provide central electronic sites where students may access their e-portfolios at any time from any location)

Principle #3: Virtual Identities

Students represent themselves through personalized information that conveys a web-savvy and deliberately constructed ethos for various uses of the e-portfolio. Students manage those identities by having control over artifacts and who sees them.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Facilitate critical discussions of how writers represent themselves in online resumes, profiles, etc.
    • Help students recognize what information, digital forms, and specific artifacts can best represent them as learners
    • Encourage students to represent their multicultural backgrounds effectively
    • Acquaint students with how they construct professional ethos in their own e-portfolios
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Acquaint faculty with any institutional policies or protocols relevant to Internet publishing, student confidentiality, and personal information
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Set up access protocols that protect student confidentiality and control over who may read e-portfolios, allowing them selectively to disclose their work in different forms to a variety of audiences
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Provide guidelines for maintaining student confidentiality and use of e-portfolios as an assessment tool

Principle #4: Authentic Audiences

Students engage in audience analysis of who they intend to read their e-portfolios, not only to accommodate faculty, but also employers, issuers of credentials, family, friends, and other readers. Students coordinate access to their e-portfolios with faculty, programs, the institution, and other readers.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Facilitate critical discussions of different readers’ expectations about grammatical usage and digital styles
    • Teach conventions of user-friendly webpage design and functionality
    • Identify the readers who will assess students’ programmatic e-portfolios, and familiarize students with those readers’ expectations
    • Help students identify and cultivate appropriate outside readers to respond to their e-portfolios (e.g., former teachers or employers)
    • Ask students to discuss changes they would make to “re-purpose” e-portfolios for different readers, e.g., program directors in their major, prospective employers, evaluators of transferable course credits
    • Encourage students to understand that e-portfolios are dynamic, not static, websites that they will continue to change as they encounter new readers in various contexts
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Invite students to present their e-portfolios in faculty training sessions
    • Develop protocols to inform students and faculty about expectations for e-portfolio assessment (e.g., required minimal content, elements of format, reflective artifacts)
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Design websites that showcase programmatic uses of e-portfolios for purposes of recruiting students, informing administrators, attracting employers, and educating legislators or the public (while maintaining the technology that allows students to continue to choose and change whatever artifacts are put on public display)
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Encourage involvement of students in campus-wide workshops to acquaint cross-curricular faculty and program directors in all disciplines with various uses of e-portfolio assessment
    • Include student representation in university assessment committees
    • Provide recognition and awards for excellence in student e-portfolios

Principle #5: Reflection and E-portfolio Pedagogy

Students create “reflective artifacts” in which they identify and evaluate the different kinds of learning that their e-portfolios represent. In particular, students may explain how various forms of instructive feedback (from faculty, Writing Centers, peers, and other readers) have influenced the composition and revision of their various e-portfolio artifacts, making teaching methods and learning contexts more transparent to their readers.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Teach students different formats and forms that facilitate reflection on their learning at various stages of drafting and web-design (e.g., reflective cover letters that introduce and link readers to various artifacts; concept maps)
    • Teach students that ongoing, rigorous reflection is a crucial part of the process of creating e-portfolios that are dynamic, not static websites
    • Provide opportunities for students to give each other feedback on e-portfolio artifacts, including reflective artifacts
    • Give students clear, constructive feedback that encourages revision and offers technological tips for improvement
    • Encourage students to consult with Writing Center tutors or other institutional support services
    • Collaborate regularly with other faculty, technology staff, and program directors to share the most effective ways to provide feedback and teach reflection
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Acquaint faculty with exemplary e-portfolio formats and forms that show how students can effectively link reflective artifacts with their selected written work (e.g., cover letters, concept maps)
    • Collaborate with teachers to craft effective writing prompts that lead to intellectually rigorous reflective thinking
    • Give faculty feedback on their own e-portfolios and encourage them to incorporate it in their annual self-evaluations
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Keep program directors and faculty aware of new technologies that have potential for creating reflective artifacts
    • Coordinate closely with writing program directors and faculty to develop electronic formats that can help track or display the “feedback loop” between writers and responders/evaluators
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Understand reflection as a critical thinking skill that reinforces student learning outcomes and yields valuable insights about programmatic effectiveness
    • Oversee campus events that introduce or advance knowledge about reflection and e-portfolio pedagogy (e.g., invite national speakers, sponsor regional conferences)

Principle #6: Integration and Curriculum Connections

Students link artifacts in a flexible structure that (1) synthesizes diverse evidence and ideas, (2) invites linear or non-linear ways to read and evaluate e-portfolios, and (3) makes connections to portfolio-related evidence and relationships distributed across the Internet. Students may therefore use linking to represent how e-portfolio artifacts inter-relate with other courses in the larger context of whole-curriculum learning.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Encourage students to show learning outcomes by linking artifacts to earlier drafts, or even to artifacts from earlier, relevant courses
    • Encourage students to show transferability of learning outcomes by linking artifacts developed in writing courses to cross-curricular courses
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Facilitate discussions with faculty on how e-portfolios can encourage articulation among related courses in the composition curriculum (e.g., first and second-semester FYC, or FYC and advanced composition courses)
    • Collaborate with other program directors to stimulate cross-curricular articulation among courses and address shared assessment goals
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Develop e-portfolio systems that feature compatibility with other programmatic or institutional e-portfolio systems
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Encourage faculty, program directors, departments, and colleges to identify and agree upon where in the overall scheme of institutional accountability e-portfolios can play a well-defined, cross-curricular role in student learning and assessment
    • Endorse and provide resources for writing across the curriculum

Principle #7: Stakeholders’ Responsibilities

Students receive the necessary support from faculty, program directors, and university administrators who not only use e-portfolios for assessment purposes and program improvement, but also keep informed about what resources are essential for implementing, maintaining, and accessing e-portfolios.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Familiarize themselves with relevant theory and e-portfolio research
    • Participate in ongoing programmatic assessment of student e-portfolios
    • Use findings of e-portfolio assessment to improve approaches to teaching
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Acquaint faculty with the most relevant sources available in portfolio learning, research, and assessment
    • Set up and train a small cohort of faculty to participate in a pilot program when first implementing e-portfolios
    • Expand e-portfolio assessment gradually
    • Conduct faculty scoring of e-portfolios, involving mixes of teachers who are experienced and inexperienced with programmatic assessment
    • Invite teachers to suggest ways to improve training in e-portfolios, and use findings of e-portfolio assessment to improve the program
    • Report assessment data promptly and provide university administrators with examples of actual student- and teacher-designed e-portfolios that help interpret what the data means
    • Collaborate with directors who are using e-portfolios at their own and other institutions
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Contribute to the development of open-source software and standards that support e-portfolio implementation and maintenance
    • Adapt portfolio rubrics to electronic formats that collect and process data efficiently
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Provide start-up funds for writing directors, technology staff, and interested teachers to engage in professional development related to e-portfolios (e.g., conferences, national workshops)
    • Use e-portfolio assessment findings to help inform further decisions about allocating resources

Principle # 8: Lifelong Learning

Students are able to adapt their e-portfolios to various purposes/ uses beyond their academic careers, enabling their various readers, in turn, to track their learning longitudinally.

Supportive best practices:

  • Composition Faculty:
     
    • Introduce students to a range of uses for which e-portfolios are used beyond programmatic or institutional goals
    • Provide students with models of e-portfolios that have been adapted for different purposes, to show development of learning over time
    • Demonstrate how their own e-portfolios are examples of lifelong learning
       
  • Writing Program Directors:
     
    • Coordinate with other program directors and university administrators to develop institutional e-portfolio systems that accommodate longitudinal tracking
       
  • Technology staff:
     
    • Collaborate with other institutions and organizations, to develop e-portfolio systems that are compatible and interoperable, accommodating “open standards” so that students can easily transfer their e-portfolios to other institutions or sites
       
  • University Administrators:
     
    • Collaborate with other institutions, state boards of education, and organizations that could provide space and support for e-portfolios that demonstrate lifelong learning

Current Examples

Current examples of well-conceived e-portfolio projects include:

  1. Alverno Diagnostic Digital Portfolio— http://ddp.alverno.edu/
  2. California Lutheran University, School of Education Webfolio— http://public.clunet.edu/%7Egatherco/eportfolio/index.htm
  3. Concordia University, Center for Learning and Performance— http://grover.concordia.ca/eportfolio/promo/
  4. E-Folio Minnesota— http://efoliominnesota.com/
  5. Elon University Student Portfolios— http://www.elon.edu/students/portfolio/
  6. Illinois State University Portfolio— http://portfolio.ilstu.edu/
  7. Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis— http://www.iport.iupui.edu/
  8. John Hopkins Digital Portfolio— http://olms.cte.jhu.edu/olms/output/page.php?id=2845
  9. Kalamazoo College Portfolio— http://www.kzoo.edu/pfolio/
  10. Kapi’olani Community College— http://www2.hawaii.edu/~kirkpatr/kite/kiteloa/
  11. La Guardia Community College— http://eportfolio.lagcc.cuny.edu/
  12. Louisiana State University Digital portfolios— http://appl003.l  su.edu/acadaff/cxcweb.nsf/$Content/Portfolios?OpenDocument
  13. New York City College of technology ePortfolio— http://eportfolio.citytech.cuny.edu/
  14. Portland State University Portfolio Project— http://portfolio.pdx.edu/Portfolio/Teaching_Learning/UnderGrad_
    Learning_Goals/University_Studies/view?p=University_Studies_Assessment
  15. Penn State ePortfolios— http://eportfolio.psu.edu/about/index.html
  16. St. Olaf College Web Portfolio— http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/cis/web_portfolios.htm
  17. University of British Columbia ePortfolio— https://www.elearning.ubc.ca/home/index.cfm?menuClicked=4%2F9%2F&p=main/dsp_eport_examples.cfm&
  18. University of Denver Portfolio Community— https://portfolio.du.edu/pc/index
  19. University of Washington, Catalyst Center— http://catalyst.washington.edu/method/portfolio.html
  20. University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, University Assessment— http://www.uwec.edu/assess/faq/students.htm
  21. Virginia Tech ePortfolio— https://eportfolio.vt.edu/

Bibliography

This bibliography of current sources on e-portfolios includes important research in composition studies and other disciplines:

Al Kahtani, S. “Electronic Portfolios in ESL Writing: An Alternative Approach.” Computer Assisted Language Learning 12.3 (July 1999): 261-68.

Alverno College. “The Diagnostic Digital Portfolio.” Nov. 2003. 27 January 2006. http://www.ddp.alverno.edu/.

Ash, Linda. Electronic Student Portfolios. Arlington Heights: Skylight Professional Development, 2000.

Avraamidou, Lucy and Zembal-Saul, C. “Exploring the Influence of Web-based Portfolio Development on learning to Teach Elementary Science. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 11.3 (2003): 415-442.

Bauer, William and Robert Dunn. “Digital Reflection: The Electronic Portfolio in Music Teacher Education.” Journal of Music Teacher Education 13 (2003): 7-20.

Barkley, Elizabeth. “From Bach to Tupac: Using an Electronic Course Portfolio to Analyze a Curricular Transformation.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 117-123.

Barrett, Helen. "electronicportfolios.org.” 26 Jan.2006. 27 Jan. 2006. http://electronicportfolios.org/.

_____. “White Paper: Researching Electronic Portfolios and Learned Engagement.” The Reflect Initiative. 2005. 28 Dec. 2005. http://www.taskstream.com/reflect/whitepaper.pdf .

_____. "Electronic Portfolios = Multimedia Development = Portfolio Development: The Electronic Development Process." Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.110-116.

_____. “Using Technology to Support Alternative Assessment and Electronic Portfolios.” 1996. 27 Jan. 2006. http://electronicportfolios.org/portfolios.html.

Batson, Trent. “The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What’s it All About?” Syllabus Magazine. Dec. 2002. 28 Dec. 2005. http://syllabus.com/print.asp?ID=6984.

Beck, Robert, Nava Livne, and Sharon Bear. “Teachers’ Self-Assessment of the Effects of Formative and Summative Electronic Portfolios on Professional Development.” European Journal of Teacher Education 28.3 (October 2005): 221-44.

Borden, Victor. “The Role of institutional Research and Data in Institutional Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 192-202.

Cambridge, Barbara. “Electronic Portfolios as Knowledge Builders.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.1-11.

Cambridge, Barbara, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey, eds. Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.

Campbell, J. “Electronic Portfolios: A Five-Year History.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 185-94.

Carney, Joanne. “Setting an Agenda for Electronic Portfolio Research: A Framework for Evaluating Portfolio Literature.” Presentation at the American Educational Research Association Conference, San Diego, April 14, 2004. 27 Jan. 2006. http://it.wce.wwu.edu/carney/Presentations/AERA04/AERAresearchlit.pdf.

Chalfen, Richard. “Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors.” Journal of Educational Media 29:1 (March 2004): 37-48.

Chang, C.-C. “A Study on the Evaluation and Effectiveness Analysis of Web-based Learning Portfolio.” British Journal of Educational Technology 32.4 (2001): 435-58.

Chappell, David, and Schermerhorn, John, Jr. "Using Electronic Student Portfolios in Management Education: A Stakeholder Perspective." Journal of Management Education 23, no. 6 (December 1999): 651-662.

Chen, Helen, David Cannon, Jonathan Gabrio, Larry Leifer, George Toye, and Tori Bailey. “Using Wikis and Weblogs to Support Reflective Learning in an Introductory Engineering Design Course.” Proceeding of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition. American Society for Engineering Education, 2005. (2005 ASEE Design in Engineering Education Division Best Paper).

Cohn, Ellen and Bernard Hibbits. “Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.” Educause Quarterly 27.4 (2004): http://www.educause.edu/apps/eq/eqm04/eqm0441.asp.

Colby, Richard. “Digital Portfolio Sensibility: An Interview with Kathleen Blake Yancey.” Computers and Composition Online. Spring 2005. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.bgsu.edu/cconline/yancey/yancey.htm.

Condon, William, Fiona Glade, Richard Haswell, Lisa Johnson-Shull, Diane Kelly-Riley, Galen Leonhardy, Jennie Nelson, Susan McLeod, and Susan Wyche. “Whither? Some Questions, Some Answers.” Beyond Outcomes: Assessment and Instruction Within a University Writing Program. Ed. Richard Haswell. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2001. 191-205.

Corwin, Terry. “Electronic Portfolios.” Campus-Wide Publications 20.1 (Jan. 2003): 32-38.

Dagley, Valerie and Bob Berrington. Learning from an Evaluation of an Electronic Portfolio to Support General Practitioners’ Personal Development Pleanning, Appraisal, and Revalidation.” Education for Primary Care 16.5 (Sept. 2005): 567-574.

Dornan, T., C. Carroll, et al. “An Electronic Learning Portfolio for Reflective Continuing Professional Development.” Medical Education 36.8 (2002): 767-769.

Dorn, Dean. “Electronic Department Portfolios: a New Tool for Department Learning and Improvement.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 203-208.

Ellertson, Anthony. “Information Appliances and Electronic Portfolios: Rearticulating the Institutional Author.” Kairos 10.1 (2005). 24 Dec. 2005. http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/10.1/binder.html?http://cissrv3.uwsp.edu/faculty/aellerts/rearticulate/home.html.

eport.consortium.org. “Home.” 27 Jan. 2006. http://eportconsortium.org/.

ePort.consortium.org. “Electronic Portfolio White Paper.” Nov. 2003. 27 Jan. 2006. http://www.eportconsortium.org/Uploads/whitepaperV1_0.pdf .

Fischer, K.M. “Down the Yellow-Chip Road: Hypertext Portfolios in Oz.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 169-83.

Forbes, C. “Cowriting, Overwriting, and Overriding in Portfolio Land Online.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 195-205.

Gathercoal, Paul, Douglas Love, Beverly Bryde, and Gerry McKean. “On Implementing Web-Based Electronic Portfolios.” Educause Quarterly 2 (2002): 29-37. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0224.pdf.

Getis, Victoria, Catherine Gynn, and Susan E. Metros. “New Partnerships: Engaging Undergraduates in Research through Technology.” Educause Center for Applied Research. 2006. 28 January 2006 http://www.educause.edu/LibraryDetailPage/666?ID=ERB0601.

Greenberg, Gary. “Extending the Portfolio Model.” Educause Review (July/Aug 2004): 29-36. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0441.pdf.

Hamilton, Sharon. “Snakepit in Cyberspace: The IUPUI Institutional Portfolio.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.159-177.

Hamp-Lyons, Liz, and William Condon. Assessing the Portfolio: Principles for Practice, Theory, and Research. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc., 2000.

Howard, R. M. “Memoranda to Myself: Maxims for the Online Portfolio.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 155-67.

Herner, Leah, Silva Karayan, Gerry McKean, Douglas Love. “Special Education Teacher Preparation and the Electronic Portfolio.” Journal of Special Education Technology 18.1 (2003): 44-49.

Hawisher, Gail E. and Cynthia L. Selfe. “Wedding the Technologies of Writing Portfolios and Computers: The Challenges of Electronic Classrooms.” Eds. Kathleen Blake Yancey and Irwin Weiser. Situating Portfolios: Four Perspectives. Logan, UT: Utah State UP, 1997. 305-21.

Hult, Christine. “Using On-line Portfolios to Assess English Majors at Utah State University.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.60-70.

Huot, Brian. “Computers and Assessment: Understanding Two Technologies.” Computers and Composition. 13.2 (1996): 231-43.

Irvin, Lennie. “Reflection in the Electronic Writing Classroom.” Computers and Composition Online. 2005. 26 Dec. 2005. http://www.bgsu.edu/cconline/irvin/Importance.htm.

Jafari, Ali. The ‘Sticky’ ePortfolio System: Tackling Challenges and Identifying Attributes.” Educause Review (July/Aug. 2004): 38-48. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0442.pdf.

Jafari, Ali, and Catherine Kaufman. Handbook of Research on ePortfolios. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc., 2006.

Johnson, Glenn, and David DiBiase. “Keeping the Horse Before the Cart: Penn State’s E-Portfolio Initiative.” Educause Quarterly 4 (2004): 18-26. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0443.pdf.

Kahn, Susan. “Linking Learning, Improvement, and Accountability: An Introduction to Electronic Institutional Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.135-158.

_____. “Recommendations.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 217.

Kelly, T. Miles. “Wired for Trouble? Creating a Hypermedia Course Portfolio.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.124-129.

Ketcheson, Kathi. “Portland State University’s Electronic Institutional Portfolio: Strategy, Planning, and Assessment.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.178-191.

_____. “Hands and Minds: Collaboration among Faculty and Institutional Researchers in Portland State University's Portfolio Project.” Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum 13.3 (2002): 22-29.

Kimball, Miles. “Database E-Portfolio Systems: A Critical Appraisal.” Computers and Composition. 22.4 (2005): 434-458.

_____. The Web Portfolio Guide: Creating Electronic Portfolios for the Web. NY: Longman, 2003.

Knadler, S. “E-Racing Difference in E-Space: Black Female Subjectivity and the Web-Based Portfolio.” Computers and Composition 18.3 (2001): 235-55.

Lorenzo, George, and John Ittelson. “An Overview of E-Portfolios.” Educause Resource Learning Center. 2005. 26 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI3001.pdf.

_____. “Demonstrating and Assessing Student Learning with E-Portfolios.” Educause Learning Initiative. 2005. 28 Jan. 2006. http://www.educause.edu/LibraryDetailPage/666?ID=ELI3003.

Love, Douglas, Gerry McKean, and Paul Gathercoal. “Portfolios to Webfolios and Beyond: Levels of Maturation. Educause Quarterly 2 (2004):24-37. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0423.pdf.

Lynch, Linda. and Pupung Purnawarman. “Electronic Portfolio Assessments In U.S. Educational and Instructional Technology Programs: Are They Supporting Teacher Education?” TechTrends 48 (2004): 50-6.

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McIntire-Strasburg, Janice. “The Flash or the Trash: Web Portfolios and Writing Assessment.” Kairos 6.2 (2001): http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/6.2/coverweb/assessment/strasburg/index.htm.

Mullen, Laurie, William Bauer, and W. Webster Newbold. “Developing a University-Wide Electronic Portfolio System for Teacher Education.” Kairos 6.2 (2001). 28 Dec. 2005. http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/6.2/binder2.html?coverweb/assessment/mullenbauernewbold/main.htm.

National Coalition on Electronic Portfolio Research. 2005. 7 Jan. 2005. http://www.naspa.org/files/eportfolio_description1205.pdf.

Olds, Barbara M. and Ronald L. Miller. “Portfolio Assessment: Measuring Moving Targets at an Engineering School." NCA Quarterly 71.4 (1997), 462-467.

Open Source Portfolio Initiative. “OSP Roadmap.” 27 Jan. 2006. http://www.theospi.org/modules/cjaycontent/index.php?id=6.

Pullman, G. “Electronic Portfolios Revisited: The eFolios Project.” Computers and Composition. 19.2 (Aug. 2002): 151-69.

Purves, A. C. “Electronic Portfolios.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 135-46.

Reiss, Donna. “Reflective Webfolios in a Humanities Course.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.31-36.

Rice, Richard. Composing the Intranet-Based Electronic Portfolio Using ‘Common’ Tools.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 37-43.

_____. Teaching and Learning First-Year Composition with Digital Portfolios. Diss. Ball State University, 2002 http://english.ttu.edu/rice/dissertation.pdf.

_____. “A Review of The Web Portfolio Guide: Creating Electronic Portfolios for the Web.” Kairos 7.3 (2002): http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/7.3/reviews/rice/.

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_____. “Comparing Electronic and Paper Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.76-82.

Stier, Marc. “Teaching Great Books on the Web.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.106-109.

Sunal, Cynthia, McCormick, Theresa, and Sunal, Dennis. “Elementary Teacher Candidates' Construction of Criteria for Selecting Social Studies Lesson Plans for Electronic Portfolios.” Journal of Social Studies Research 29.1 (Spring 2005): 7-17.

Syverson, Peg. "Beyond Portfolios: The Learning Record Online." University of Texas at Austin. 7 Jan. 03. 27 Jan. 06. http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~syverson/olr/.

Takayoshi, Pamela. “The Shape of Electronic Writing: Evaluating and Assessing Computer-Assisted Writing Processes and Products.” Computers and Composition. 13.2 (1996): 245-57.

Tetreault, M. K. and K. A. Ketcheson. “Creating a Shared Understanding of Institutional Knowledge through an Electronic Institutional Portfolio.” Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum 13.3 (2002): 40-49.

Thomkins, Daniel. “Ambassadors with Portfolios: Electronic Portfolios and the Improvement of Teaching.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.91-105.

_____. “Ambassadors with Portfolios: Recommendations.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 130-31.

Tosh, David, and Ben Werdmuller. “Creation of a Learning Landscape:Weblogging and Social Networking in the Context of E-Portfolios.” 15 July 2004. 27 Jan. 2006. http://www.eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscape.pdf.

Treuer, Paul, and Jill Jenson. “Electronic Portfolios Need Standards to Thrive.” Educause Quarterly 2 (2003): 34-42. 27 Dec. 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQM0324.pdfl.

University of Denver Center for Teaching and Learning. “Portfolio Clearinghouse.” 27 Jan. 2006. http://ctl.du.edu/portfolioclearinghouse/search_portfolios.cfm.

Wall, B. C. and R.F. Peltier. “‘Going Public’ with Electronic Portfolios: Audience, Community, and the Terms of Student Ownership.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 207-217.

Watson, Steve. “World Wide Web Authoring in the Portfolio-Assessed, (Inter)Networked Composition Course.” Computers and Composition. 10.2 (1996): 219-30.

Wexler, Judie. “The Role of Institutional Portfolios in the Revised WASC Accreditation Process.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001. 209-216.

Whithaus, Carl, and Mary Beth Lakin. “Working (on) Electronic Portfolis: Connections between Work and Study.” Kairos 9.2 (2005) http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/9.2/binder2.html?coverweb/whithaus/cover.htm

Whithaus, Carl. “A Review of Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy 7.1 (Spring 2002): http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/7.1/binder.html?reviews/whithaus.

_____. “Green Squiggly Lines: Evaluating Student Writing in Computer Mediated Environments.” Kairos 7.X 2002 http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/articles/whithaus2002/.

Wilferth, Joseph. “Private Literacies, Popular Culture, and Going Public: Teachers and Students as Authors of the Electronic Portfolio.” Kairos 7.2 (Summer 2002): http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/7.2/binder.html?sectionone/wilferth.

Wilson, Elizabeth, Vivian Wright, and Joyce Stallworth. “Secondary Preservice Teachers' Development of Electronic Portfolios: An Examination of Perceptions.” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 11.4 (2003): 515-527.

Yancey, Kathy. “Portfolio, Electronic, and the Links Between.” Computers and Composition 13.2 (1996): 129-33.

_____. “Digitalized Student Portfolios.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.15-30.

_____. “General Patterns and the Future.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.83-87.

_____. “Postmodernism, Palimpsest, and Portfolios: Theoretical Issues in the Representation of Student Work.” College Composition and Communication. 55.4 (2004): 738-761.

Young, Jeffrey. “Creating Online Portfolios Can Help Students See ‘Big Picture,’ Colleges Say.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 21 Feb. 2002. 29 Dec. 2005. http://chronicle.com/free/2002/02/2002002101t.htm

Zalatan, Katrina. “Electronic Portfolios in a Management Major Curriculum.” Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Ed. Barbara Cambridge, Susan Kahn, Daniel Thompkins, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 2001.44-52.

Zembal-Saul, Carle, Leigh Haefner, Lucy Avraamidou, Mary Severs, and Tom Dana. “Web-Based Portfolios: A Vehicle for Examining Prospective Elementary Teachers' Developing Understandings of Teaching Science.” Journal of Science Teacher Education 13.4 (2002): 283-302.

Some Relevant Sources on Reflection

Brookfield, Stephen. Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.

Rodgers, Carol. “Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking.” Teaches College Record. 104.4 (2002): 842-866.

Schon, Donald. Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987.

_____. “Causuality an Causal Interference in the Study of Organizations.” Rethinking Knowledge: Reflections Across the Disciplines. Ed. Robert Goodman and Walter Fisher. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995. 69-103.

Yancey, Kathleen. Reflection in the Writing Classroom. Logan, UT: Utah University State Press, 1998.

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